-













































:

:

.

1. [⁺]=[ˉ]=1-7 (=7); 2. [⁺]>[ˉ] (<7); 3. [⁺]<[ˉ] (>7)

4 :

1. . . . . 2. . . . . . 3. . . . . . (. ) 4. . . . . .

2S→2K⁺+S²ˉ pH>7

I. S²ˉ+H⁺OHˉ⇆(HS)ˉ+OHˉ 2K⁺+S²ˉ+HOH⇆(HS)ˉ+OHˉ+2K⁺

2S+HOH⇆KHS+KOH

II. (HS)ˉ+HOH⇆H2S+OHˉ

K⁺ +(HS)ˉ+HOH⇆H2S+OHˉ+K⁺

KHS+HOH⇆H2S+KOH

MgCl2→Mg²⁺+2Clˉ pH<7

I. Mg²⁺+H⁺OHˉ⇆(MgOH)⁺+H⁺

2Clˉ+ Mg²⁺+HOH⇆(MgOH)⁺+H⁺+2Clˉ

MgCl2+HOH⇆MgOHCl+HCl

II. (MgOH)⁺+HOH⇆Mg(OH)2+H⁺

Clˉ+ MgOH⁺+HOH⇆Mg(OH)2+H⁺+Clˉ

MgOHCl+HOH⇆Mg(OH)2+HCl

MgS→Mg²⁺+S²ˉ pH≈7

Mg²⁺+S²ˉ+2H⁺OHˉ⇆Mg(OH)2+H2S

MgCl2+Na2S+2H2O→

Na2SO4→2Na⁺+SO4²ˉ pH=7

.

. : 1. ; 2. ; 3. .

: 1. ࠠ AgNO3 +HCl→AgCl+HNO3

Ag⁺+Cl¯→ AgCl↓ -

2. . . HCl+NaOH→NaCl+H2O

H⁺+OH¯→H2O

3. ࠠ K2CO3 +2HCl→2KCl+CO2 ↑+H2O

CO3 ¯+2H⁺→ CO2 ↑+H2O

.
Be(OH)2 , Zn(OH)2 , Pb(OH)2 , Sn(OH)2 , Sn(OH)4 , Cr(OH)3 , Al(OH)3
:

Be(OH)2+2HCl→BeCl2+2H2O

Be(OH)2+2H⁺→Be²⁺+2H2O,.:

Be(OH)2+2HCl+2H2O→[Be(H2O) 4]Cl2

Be(OH)2+2H⁺+2H2O→[Be(H2O) 4]²⁺

Be(OH)2+2NaOH→Na2BeO2+2H2O

Be(OH)2+2ˉ→BeO2²ˉ+2H2O

Be(OH)2+2NaOH→Na2[Be(OH)4]

Be(OH)2+2ˉ→[Be(OH)4]²ˉ

(., ., ).

. . . .

. 2H2O+2ē→H2+2OHˉ

Mg+H2O→

φ(Mg(OH)2/Mg)=-2.36

φ(H2O/H2)=-0.413 φ .>φ

1|Mg˚+2H2O - 2ē→Mg(OH)2+2H⁺

1|2H2O+2ēH2+2OHˉ _

Mg+4H2O→Mg(OH)2+H2+2H⁺+2OHˉ

Mg+2H2O→Mg(OH)2+H2

. . . ., .. .

. . . . . .

. .

Al+NaOH+H2O→

φ(AlO2ˉ/Al)=-2.36

φ(Al2O/H2)=-0.827 φ .>φ -

2|Al˚+4OHˉ - 3ē→ AlO2ˉ+2H2O

3|2H2O+2ēH2+2OHˉ _

2Al+8OHˉ+6H2O →2AlO2ˉ+4H2O+3H2+6OHˉ

2Al+2NaOH+2H2O →2NaAlO2+3H2

. 2- ( . .)

H⁺ .

HCl ,H2SO4 .

H2SO4 . , HNO3 . , HNO3 .

1. +H2SO4 . →SO4+2

φ(H/2H⁺)=0 φ()<0

1.+H2SO4 .→SO4+ H2O+....

Li-Zn (H2S) Cr-H(S˚) (SO2)

φ(SO4²ˉ/S)>1

SO4²ˉ→ H2S

SO4²ˉ→S

SO4²ˉ→SO2

2. +HNO3 →NO3+H2O+. . . .

Li-Zn (NH4⁺,NH4NO3) Cr-H(N2O) (NO)

φ(NO3ˉ)>1

3. +HNO3 → NO3 + H2O + . ..

Li-Zn (NO) Zn-(NO2)

. Au+3V HCl+HNO3→AuCl3+NO2+H2O


. + +
. . + . + . . . +

..+

+

.

Li2O

Cu2O

CuO

MnO

SO2

SO3

P2O5

*.Me

Mn2O7

CrO3

ZnO

PbO

Al2O3

Cr2O3

LiOH

CuOH

Cu(OH)2

Mn(OH)2

H2SO3

H2SO4

H2PO4

*.

HMnO4

H2CrO4

Zn(OH)2

Pb(OH)2

Al(OH)3

Cr(OH)3

Na2CO3

CuCl2

NaHCO3

CuOHCl

⇆⁺+¯ α , .

HF , H2S , HNO2 , H2SO3 , H2CO3 , H2SiO3 , HCN , HSCN , CH3COOH , H3PO4

HClO

NH4OH

(NH4 H2O)

Fe(SCN)3 ,

dCl2 ,HgJ2

H2CO3 ⇆H⁺+HCO3¯

HCO3¯⇆H⁺+CO3¯

Cu(OH)2⇆OH¯+CuOH⁺

CuOH⁺⇆OH¯+Cu²⁺

→⁺+¯ α , .

HCl , HBr , HJ , HNO3 , H2SO4 , HMnO4 , HClO4 , H2 CrO4

NH4OH

. .

.-.

Na2CO3 →2Na⁺+CO3 ²¯

.

H⁺, H2

. OHˉ, H2

H2

.. Oˉ²

NO2ˉ→ NO3

Oˉ²+2H⁺→H2

Oˉ²+ H2 →2OHˉ

Oˉ²+ H2 →2OHˉ

. .Oˉ²

NO2ˉ→ NO3ˉ

H2→Oˉ²+2H⁺

2OHˉ→Oˉ²+ H2

H2→Oˉ²+2H⁺

1 .

<7 =7 >7

φ(Fe²⁺/Fe)=-0.44 B

φ(Al³⁺/Al)=-1.66

φ(Mg²⁺/Mg)=-2.36

φ(2H⁺/ H2)=0

φ(O2/ H2O)=+1.22

φ(Fe(OH)2/Fe)=-0.46

φ(Al(OH)3/Al)=-1.88

φ(Mg(OH)2/Mg)=-2.36

φ(H2O/H2)=-0.413

φ(O2/4OHˉ)=+0.814

φ(Fe(OH)2/Fe)=-0.874

φ(AlO2ˉ/Al)=-2.36

φ(Mg(OH)2/Mg)=-2.69

φ(Al2O/H2)=-0.827

φ(O2/4OHˉ)=+0.401


.

1.- : . , . . . . . ∆ ..=∆1+∆2

: 1. n*A+m*B=x*C+y*D , , , , , ,D

∆ ..=∑∆ ...--∑∆ ... ∆=(∆ .*+∆H .D*y) (∆ .A*n+∆H .B*m)

2. ∆ ..=--∆ ..

2.- -: ∆ ..=--∆ ..

: 1. <∆ .. , . .

. ∆S ..=∑S ..--∑S .. ∆S=S .*x(S .A*n+S .*m)

, : 1. ; 2. ; 3. #.

. .

: ∆G=∆HT*∆S, ∆G=0-..,∆G<0-. .,∆G>0-....

∆G . . ∆G ...=0 G[.]

∆G ..=∑∆G ...--∑∆G ...

.

1. ∆H<0 ∆S<0 2. ∆H>0 ∆S<0

. , . .

:

1. ( .) . ( , .. .). , . , . V ..=+∆/∆=+∆n/(V*∆T), ∆n . , ∆ . -, ∆-..

V ..=[/*]=[/³*]

2. (. .) . , . . . . . .

V ..=+∆/S*∆T=[/*²*] , S .

, .

1. - .

(...) V=k*[A]ⁿ*[B] ⁿⁿ, k , - . . . - . .

2. .( ) . . .

3. . . -: 10 2 4 . V 2=V 1 *γ↑((2-1)/10)

4. () 5. . 6.(..) (..)

( ∆ t)

. . . . t .

K=K0*e↑(-(Ea/R*T)) , (. . . (1 /1 )), 0 .

↑ => ↓ Ea => ↑ K => ↑ V

, :

.

. . . ..= ./ .=[C] *[D] /[A]ⁿ*[B]ⁿⁿ , K ..=1-.., ..>1-.., ..<1-..

. . -: , .

1.. . 2. . ↑ ,↓  3.. . ↑ ↓ 4.. . ., . .

.

. . : 1.( . . . -) 2.. -ࠠ , -

.-. . . . , . .

. : 1.. . ∆ .>0;

2. . ∆ .≈ 0; 3. ∆ .< 0.

.. ∆ =∆ .+∆ .+∆ .

() . ( ). .

.

: 1. α= ../. - . ., (..), (..)

α>30% - . ., α<3% - . ., αÎ (3%;30%) ..

2. . . : ⇆⁺+¯ . : → ⁺+¯ ( ) .= .=[ ⁺]*[ ˉ]/[KA]

. (. )

.

. : 1. ; 2. ; 3. .

: 1. ࠠ AgNO3 +HCl→AgCl+HNO3

Ag⁺+Cl¯→ AgCl↓ -

2. . . HCl+NaOH→NaCl+H2O

H⁺+OH¯→H2O

3. ࠠ K2CO3 +2HCl→2KCl+CO2 ↑+H2O

CO3 ¯+2H⁺→ CO2 ↑+H2O

.. . . . , .

. HgJ2 *2KJ

: 2[HgJ4] (..)

. d-(. . ), ..

. . .: J¯, F¯, Cl¯, NO2¯, OH¯ H2O , NH3

.
Be(OH)2 , Zn(OH)2 , Pb(OH)2 , Sn(OH)2 , Sn(OH)4 , Cr(OH)3 , Al(OH)3
:

Be(OH)2+2HCl→BeCl2+2H2O

Be(OH)2+2H⁺→Be²⁺+2H2O,.:

Be(OH)2+2HCl+2H2O→[Be(H2O) 4]Cl2

Be(OH)2+2H⁺+2H2O→[Be(H2O) 4]²⁺

Be(OH)2+2NaOH→Na2BeO2+2H2O

Be(OH)2+2ˉ→BeO2²ˉ+2H2O

Be(OH)2+2NaOH→Na2[Be(OH)4]

Be(OH)2+2ˉ→[Be(OH)4]²ˉ

. , . . . . .

H2O→H⁺+OH¯ .=[⁺]*[ˉ]/[H2 O] → .*[H2O] =[⁺]*[ˉ]= H2O=1-14 -

.

1. [⁺]=[ˉ]=1-7 (=7); 2. [⁺]>[ˉ] (<7); 3. [⁺]<[ˉ] (>7)

H=-lg[⁺] pOH=-lg[ˉ] p+p=14

4 :

1. . . . . 2. . . . . . 3. . . . . . (. ) 4. . . . . .

2S→2K⁺+S²ˉ pH>7

I. S²ˉ+H⁺OHˉ⇆(HS)ˉ+OHˉ 2K⁺+S²ˉ+HOH⇆(HS)ˉ+OHˉ+2K⁺

2S+HOH⇆KHS+KOH

II. (HS)ˉ+HOH⇆H2S+OHˉ

K⁺ +(HS)ˉ+HOH⇆H2S+OHˉ+K⁺

KHS+HOH⇆H2S+KOH

MgCl2→Mg²⁺+2Clˉ pH<7

I. Mg²⁺+H⁺OHˉ⇆(MgOH)⁺+H⁺

2Clˉ+ Mg²⁺+HOH⇆(MgOH)⁺+H⁺+2Clˉ

MgCl2+HOH⇆MgOHCl+HCl

II. (MgOH)⁺+HOH⇆Mg(OH)2+H⁺

Clˉ+ MgOH⁺+HOH⇆Mg(OH)2+H⁺+Clˉ

MgOHCl+HOH⇆Mg(OH)2+HCl

MgS→Mg²⁺+S²ˉ pH≈7

Mg²⁺+S²ˉ+2H⁺OHˉ⇆Mg(OH)2+H2S

MgCl2+Na2S+2H2O→

Na2SO4→2Na⁺+SO4²ˉ pH=7

.

. . .:

1. h . . . , . .

.= H2O/ ..⠠ h=√( ./ )

2. . () =h/V=m ../M ..*V

3. .() - . - 1000 . . =n/V=m -/∋*V , ∋ - ( m )

-= -/ H⁺ -= / H⁺ = / *. .

: . . - . . . NaOH+HCl=NaCl+H2O n NaOH=N HCl=n NaCl=n H2O c NaOH*V NaOH =c H(HCl)*V HCl

- .

.

. 1. . . . . . . Mg²⁺, Mg⁺⁷O4 ,(CrO4)²ˉ

2. F2 , O2

. 1.. . . . c. . NH3 , S

.1. (. O2 F2) l2 , Br2 , N2 , S˚ ,P˚

2.. . . . c. . (SO3)²ˉ, Fe , (NO2

. .

. . . ., φ .>φ ., ξ = φ .-- φ .>0 - . . . .

. . . . . . , . -. . . . . . .

.

. . . .

. . . . . φ(˚2/2⁺), .

. ξ = φ . -- φ(˚2/2⁺)

- .

φ(Zn˚/Zn)=-0.76

φ(u˚/Cu²⁺)=+0.34 B

ξ = φ .-- φ =1.1

: Zn˚-2ē→Zn²⁺

: Cu² +2ēu˚

Zn˚+ Cu²⁺= Zn²⁺+u˚

(-)(A) Zn˚| ZnSO4 ;1M||CuSO4 ;1M|Cu (K)(+)

t, , -.

. . ., . . . : φ(OX/Red)=φ˚(OX/Red)+(RT/nF)*ln([OX]/[Red])

OX . , Red . , RT/F=0.059, n

φ(ⁿ⁺/)= φ˚( ⁿ⁺/)+(0.059/n)*lg[ⁿ⁺] . Ag|AgNO3 ;1M|| AgNO3 ;0.01M|Ag

φ(Ag⁺/Ag)=0.8+(0.059/1)*lg 10ˉ²=0.692 B

(., ., ).

. . . .

. 2H2O+2ē→H2+2OHˉ

Mg+H2O→

φ(Mg(OH)2/Mg)=-2.36

φ(H2O/H2)=-0.413 φ .>φ

1|Mg˚+2H2O - 2ē→Mg(OH)2+2H⁺

1|2H2O+2ēH2+2OHˉ _

Mg+4H2O→Mg(OH)2+H2+2H⁺+2OHˉ

Mg+2H2O→Mg(OH)2+H2

. . . ., .. .

. . . . . .

. .

Al+NaOH+H2O→

φ(AlO2ˉ/Al)=-2.36

φ(Al2O/H2)=-0.827 φ .>φ -

2|Al˚+4OHˉ - 3ē→ AlO2ˉ+2H2O

3|2H2O+2ēH2+2OHˉ _

2Al+8OHˉ+6H2O →2AlO2ˉ+4H2O+3H2+6OHˉ

2Al+2NaOH+2H2O →2NaAlO2+3H2

. 2- ( . .)

H⁺ .

HCl ,H2SO4 .

H2SO4 . , HNO3 . , HNO3 .

1. +H2SO4 . →SO4+2

φ(H/2H⁺)=0 φ()<0

1.+H2SO4 .→SO4+ H2O+....

Li-Zn (H2S) Cr-H(S˚) (SO2)

φ(SO4²ˉ/S)>1

SO4²ˉ→ H2S

SO4²ˉ→S

SO4²ˉ→SO2

2. +HNO3 →NO3+H2O+. . . .

Li-Zn (NH4⁺,NH4NO3) Cr-H(N2O) (NO)

φ(NO3ˉ)>1

3. +HNO3 → NO3 + H2O + . ..

Li-Zn (NO) Zn-(NO2)

. Au+3V HCl+HNO3→AuCl3+NO2+H2O

. : H2SO4 - Fe , Ti ; HNO3 - Cr

. . .

. :

. .-.

. t˚() .

+2 , CO2 , CO , SO3 , () →.

+

. , ., t˚

. . ., .

()

: 1. . .

2..

3.

4.

5. . .

: 1. ., φ .> φ .

2. ()

.-. .

2H⁺+2ē→H2 . 堠 \

2H2O+2ē→H2+2OHˉ ., 頠 / - . .

O2 +2H2O+2ē→4OHˉ ., 頠 \

O2 +4H⁺+4ē→2H2O . / -. .

.

1.  ()

1.1  

1.1.1 堠 φ ..< φ . (φ F<φ Au)

1.1.2 堠 φ ..> φ . (φ F>φ Au)

1.2  

1.2.1  . (. . . )

1.2.2 

1.2.3 

2.  ( . )

2.1 ࠠ φ .< φ .

2.2  

3.  ( )

4.  ( Cr, Ni,Ti)


2012 , .