-













































:

:

- .

:

d

160

Lmax

930

nmax

-1

2000

nmin

-1

40

S max

/ 1600

S min

/ 50

tmax

3.0

d max

40

d min

82.5

Zn

18

Zs

16

.

1. .

Rn = nmax / nmin ,

nmax , nmin -

, -1

Rn = 2000 / 40 = 50

2. :

lgj = lgRn / Zn - 1

Zn -

lgj = lg50 / 18-1 = 0.0999

1 j

j = 1.26

3. j

2000 1600 1250 1000 800 630 500 400 315
250 200 160 125 100 80 63 50 40

4. Zn j

Zn = p1(x1) x p2(x2) x ... x pn(xn)

p1,pn -

x1,xn -

18 = 3(1) x 3(3) x 2(9)

x1, x2, xn j = 1.26

x1 = 6

x2 = 3

5. .

6. n = 1460 /

.


7. :

i = ju

j -

u -

in1 = 1000 / 1460 = 0.69

i1 = j-1 = 1.26-1 = 0.79

i2 = j-2 = 1.26-2 = 0.63

i3 = j-3 = 1.26-3 = 0.5

i4 = j-1 = 1.26-1 = 0.79

i5 = j-2 = 1.26-2 = 0.63

i6 = j-5 = 1.26-5 = 0.32

i7 = j3 = 1.263 = 2

i8 = j-6 = 1.26-6 = 0.25

8.

.

z = åz / 1+(1/ju)

z = åz - z

åz = 93

z1 = 93 / 1+1.26 = 41 z1 = 93 - 41 = 52 i1` = 41 / 52 = 0.788

z2 = 93 / 1+1.262 = 36 z2 = 93 - 36 = 57 i2` = 36 / 57 = 0.63

z3 = 93 / 1+1.263 = 31 z3 = 93 - 31 = 62 i3` = 31 /62 = 0.5

åz = 120

z4 = 120 / 1+1/1.26 = 67 z4 = 120 - 67 = 53 i4` = 67 / 53 = 1.264

z5 = 120 / 1+1.262 = 46 z5 = 120 - 46 = 74 i5` = 46 / 74 = 0.721

z6 = 120 / 1+1.265 = 29 z6 = 120 - 29 = 91 i6` = 29 / 91 = 0.318

åz = 150

z7 = 150 / 1+1.1.263 = 100 z6 = 150 - 100 = 50 i6` = 100 / 50 = 2

z8 = 150 / 1+1.266 = 30 z6 = 150 - 30 = 120 i6` = 30 / 120 = 0.25

9.

Dn = (1 - n. / n. ) * 100% £ 10(j-1), %

Dn -

Dn = 10 (1.26 - 1) = 2.6 %

:

1 = 1460 * in1` * i1` * i4` * i7`

1 = 1460 * 0.69 * 0.79 * 1.26 * 2 = 1991.97 D = 1- 1991.97/2000* 100 = 0.4%

, .

1

999.954 * i1` * i4` * i7`

1991.97 0.4 %

2

999.954 * i2` * i4` * i7`

1592.26 0.5 %

3

999.954 * i3` * i4` * i7`

1263.94 1.1 %

4

999.954 * i1` * i5` * i7`

978.65 2.1 %

5

999.954 * i2` * i5` * i7`

782.424 2.2 %

6

999.954 * i3` * i5` * i7`

620.97 1.4 %

7

999.954 * i1` * i6` * i7`

501.1 0.2 %

8

999.954 * i2` * i6` * i7`

400.66 0.3 %

9

999.954 * i3` * i6` * i7`

317.98 0.9 %

10

999.954 * i1` * i4` * i8`

248.9 0.2 %

11

999.954 * i2` * i4` * i8`

199.07 0.2 %

12

999.954 * i3` * i4` * i8`

157.99 0.3 %

13

999.954 * i1` * i5` * i8`

122.33 2.1 %

14

999.954 * i2` * i5` * i8`

97.8 2.2 %

15

999.954 * i3` * i5` * i8`

78.6 2.4 %

16

999.954 * i1` * i6` * i8`

62.6 0.5 %

17

999.954 * i2` * i6` * i8`

50.08 0.1 %

18

999.954 * i3` * i6` * i8`

39.8 0.4 %

,

(2.6%)

.

.

1.

Rn = Smax / Smin = 1600 / 50 = 32

2. :

tgj = lg Rn / zs - 1 = lg 32 / 15 = 0.1

1 j

j = 1.26

3. (/)

1600 1269.84 1007.81 799.84 634.80 503.81 399.84 317.33
251.85 199.88 158.63 125.9 99.9 79.3 62.94 50

4.

5. nn (/)

.

.

266.67 211.64 167.97 133.31 105.8 83.97 66.64 52.89
41.96 33.31 26.44 20.98 16.65 13.22 10.49 8.33

6. :

16 = 4(1) x 2(4) x 2(8)

7.

.



1600

1269

1007 (266)

799 (211)

634 (167)

503 (133)

399 (105)

317 (83)

251 (66)

199 (52)

158 (41)

125 (33)

99 (26)

79 (20)

62 (16)

50 (133)

(10)

(8)

8. .

åz = 93

z1 = 93 / 1+1.26 = 41 z1 = 93 - 41 = 52 i1` = 41 / 52 = 0.788

z2 = 93 / 1+1.262 = 36 z2 = 93 - 36 = 57 i2` = 36 / 57 = 0.63

z3 = 93 / 1+1.263 = 31 z3 = 93 - 31 = 62 i3` = 31 /62 = 0.5

åz = 120

z4 = 120 / 1+1/1.26 = 67 z4 = 120 - 67 = 53 i4` = 67 / 53 = 1.264

z5 = 120 / 1+1.262 = 46 z5 = 120 - 46 = 74 i5` = 46 / 74 = 0.721

z6 = 120 / 1+1.265 = 29 z6 = 120 - 29 = 91 i6` = 29 / 91 = 0.318

åz = 150

z7 = 150 / 1+1.1.263 = 100 z6 = 150 - 100 = 50 i6` = 100 / 50 = 2

z8 = 150 / 1+1.266 = 30 z6 = 150 - 30 = 120 i6` = 30 / 120 = 0.25

9.

. .

1

999.954 * i1` * i4` * i7`

1991.97 0.4 %

2

999.954 * i2` * i4` * i7`

1592.26 0.5 %

3

999.954 * i3` * i4` * i7`

1263.94 1.1 %

4

999.954 * i1` * i5` * i7`

978.65 2.1 %

5

999.954 * i2` * i5` * i7`

782.424 2.2 %

6

999.954 * i3` * i5` * i7`

620.97 1.4 %

7

999.954 * i1` * i6` * i7`

501.1 0.2 %

8

999.954 * i2` * i6` * i7`

400.66 0.3 %

9

999.954 * i3` * i6` * i7`

317.98 0.9 %

10

999.954 * i1` * i4` * i8`

248.9 0.2 %

11

999.954 * i2` * i4` * i8`

199.07 0.2 %

12

999.954 * i3` * i4` * i8`

157.99 0.3 %

13

999.954 * i1` * i5` * i8`

122.33 2.1 %

14

999.954 * i2` * i5` * i8`

97.8 2.2 %

15

999.954 * i3` * i5` * i8`

78.6 2.4 %

16

999.954 * i1` * i6` * i8`

62.6 0.5 %

17

999.954 * i2` * i6` * i8`

50.08 0.1 %

18

999.954 * i3` * i6` * i8`

39.8 0.4 %

.

1. :

N = Pz * V / 61200 ,

Pz - ,

V - , /.

2. :

V = ( Cv * Dq/ (Tm * tx * Sy * Bu * zp) ) * Kv ,/

T - , . 40 [1]

C - . 39 [1]

D -

B -

Sz -

Kv = Kmv * Knv * Kv ;

Kmv - , .1-4 [1]

Knv - , .5 [1]

Kv - , .6 [1]

:

Kv = 1 * 1 * 0.9 = 0.9

V = ( 700 * 1600.17) / (2000.33 * 30.38 * 0.180.4 * 1600.08 * 260.1) * 0.9 = 126 /

3. :

n = 1000V / pdmax ,/

dmax - .

n = 1000 * 125 / p * 160 = 246 /

- 250 /.

:

V = p * 160 * 250 / 1000 = 125 /

4. - :

Pz = (10Cp * tx * Szy * Bu * z / (Dq * nw )) * Kmp , H

堠 Cp - .41 [1]

Kmp - , . 9 [1] = 1

Pz = 10 * 101 * 30.88 * 0.180.75 * 160 * 26 / (1600.87 * 2500) * 1 = 3691 H

5. :

M = Pz * D / z * 100 = 3691 * 160 / 200 = 2952.8 H

:

Ne = 3691 * 125 / 1020 * 60 = 7.54

6. .

N = 4*10-6 * dcp * (pn * n1 * c*d / d * n) ,

d - ,

d - ,

c = 1.5 - .

pn - , .

N = 4*10-6 * 45 * ( 3*900+1.5 * 68.4/40 * 380) = 0.6

7. .

hp = h * h ,

h - .

hp = 0.99 * 0.9 = 0.891

8. .

N = (0.8 ¸ 1) * (N / 0.74 + Nx) ;

N = 0.8 (7.54 / 0.74 + 0.5) = 8.6

248[3] - 1324 / 1460.

9. :

N = hp * (1- Nx / N. )

N = 0.74 * ( 1 - 0.5/10) = 0.71

10. :

Mk = 9740 * N * h / np , *

np - , -1

h - .

:

Mk1 = 9740 * 10 * 0.95 / 1000 = 92.5 H*

:

Mk2 = 9740 * 10 * 0.93 / 500 = 185 H*

:

Mk3 = 9740 * 10 * 0.90 / 160 = 578 H*

M = 9740 * 10 * 0.89 / 50 = 1850 H*

11. :

Q = M (Pz + G) +k*Px , H

G = 3*103 - ;

M = 0.16 - ;

K = 1.12 - . .

Px - , [1], H

Px = (10Cp / 1) * tx * Szy * Vh * Kp

Cp .12 [1]

Px = 10 * 150 * 2.41 * 2.60.4 * 80-0.3 * 1 = 3267 H

Q = 0.16 * ( 3691 + 3000) + 1.12 * 3267 = 4729.6 H

.

1. :

di = 103 * Ö Mki / (0.2 *[s]) ,

[s] = 3*107 - .

d1 = 103 * 3Ö 92/ 0.2*3*107 = 32

d2 = 103 * 3Ö 185/ 0.2*3*107 = 44

d3 = 103 * 3Ö 578/ 0.2*3*107 = 53

d1 = 35 , d2 = 40 , d1 = 50 .

2. :

m = 3Ö 2Mk*Kg*Kh / (y*y1*Ke*z1*[s]n) ,

Mk - , *

Kg - (1.05 ¸ 1.17)

Kh - (1.06 ¸ 1.48)

y = 6¸8 -

y1 = 0.4 ¸0.5 -

Ke = 0.01 -

z1 -

[s]n - , :

[s]n = ((1.3 ¸ 1.6) s-1 / [n]*Rs ) * Rph ,

s-1 = 438 H/2 -

[n] = 1.5 -

Rs = 1.5 -

Rph = 1 - .

[s]n = 1.5 * 438 / 1.52 * 1 = 185 H/2

:

m1 = 3Ö 2*92*1.17*1.48 / (6*0.4*241*185*0.01) = 1.7

:

m2 = 3Ö 2*185*1.17*1.48 / (6*0.4*57*185*0.01) = 2

:

m3 = 3Ö 2*578*1.17*1.48 / (6*0.4*62*185*0.01) = 2.3

3. :

A = (u+1) * 2Ö (340/[sk])2 + Mk / (y * u * Ru) ,

[sk] = 1100 - .

y = 0.16 - .

Rn = 1 - .

u - .

u = 1/in ;

:

A1 = (2.8 +1) 3Ö (340/1100)2 + 92*103 / 0.16 * 2.8 = 94

A2 = (2.8 +1) 3Ö (340/1100)2 + 185*103 / 0.16 * 2.8 = 120

A3 = (2.8 +1) 3Ö (340/1100)2 + 578*103 / 0.16 * 2.8 = 150

4. :

m = (0.01 ¸ 0.02)A ,

m1 = 0.02 * 94 = 1.8 = 2

m2 = 0.02 * 120 = 2.1 = 2

m3 = 0.015 * 150 = 2.2 = 2

5.

,

. :

.

Rax Ray TB Rbx Rby

C D

A T6 P6 P13 B

300 215 40

Rax P6 P13 Rbx

Mx

Ray T6 T13 Rby

My

Mk = 578 * 103 H*

Pi = 2Mk / di

Ti = Pi * tg 20

d6 = 60

d13 = 120

P6 = 2*578*103 / 60 = 19266.7 H

T6 = tg20 * 19266.7 = 7012 H

P13 = 2*578*103 / 120 = 9634 H

T13 = tg20 * 9634 = 3506 H

6. :

P6 * AC + P13 * AD - Rbx * AB = 0

Rbx = 19354 H

Rax = P6 + P13 - Rbx = 9546.6 H

T6 * AC - T13 * AD + Rbx * AB = 0

Rby = 540 H

Ray = T6 - T13 + Rby = 9978 H

7. .

s = Ö Mu2 + 0.75Mk2 / W £ [s]u = 80 .

s -

Mu - max *

W - , 3

Mu = Ö Mx2 + My2 ,*

Mx My - , *

Mu = Ö 19002 + 5462 = 1976 H*

W = 0.1 * d3 , 2

d - ,

W = 0.1 * 503 = 12500 3

 

s = Ö19762 + 0.75 * 578 / 12500 = 17.8 = 18 < 80

.

1. .. .. -. 2

-.: , 1985.

2. .. . .

-.: , 1970.

3. . . / ..

-.: , 1981.

4. .. .. .

-.: , 1985.

5. .. . -.: , 1975.


2012 , .